Orch OR

Stuart Hameroff’s research pursued microtubule information processing and anesthetic action. In the mid-1990s he teamed with eminent British physicist and Nobel Laureate Sir Roger Penrose to develop a controversial quantum theory of consciousness (‘orchestrated objective reduction’, ‘Orch OR’) based on microtubule quantum computing. Harshly criticized initially, Orch OR is now supported by experimental results including anesthetic action. In 2017, with Sir Roger Penrose, James Tagg, Ivette Fuentes and Erik Viierre, Hameroff co-founded the Penrose Institute, intended to support research based on the various works of Sir Roger (cosmology, quantum mechanics, general relativity, black holes, geometry and consciousness).

Stuart Hameroff MD and Sir Roger Penrose


Hameroff, Stuart, ‘Orch OR’ is the most complete, and most easily falsifiable theory of consciousness,  (2020) Cognitive Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1080/17588928.2020.1839037 To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/17588928.2020.1839037 - Published online: 24 Nov 2020.  
Kalra, Aarat P, Stuart Hameroff, Jack Tuszynski, and Aristide Dogariu. 2020. “Anesthetic Gas Effects on Quantum Vibrations in Microtubules – Testing the Orch OR Theory of Consciousness.” OSF. August 21. 2020  osf.io/zqnjd
Hameroff, SR., 2018. Editorial Views. “Anesthetic action and ‘quantum consciousness: A match made in olive oil.” Anesthesiology, 8(129):228-231.
Craddock TJA, Kurian P, Preto J, Sahu K, Hameroff SR, Klobukowski M, Tuszynski JA. Scientific Report, 2017, August. Anesthetic Alterations of Collective Terahertz Oscillations in Tubulin Correlate with Clinical Potency: Implications for Anesthetic Action and Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction. 
Stuart R. Hameroff, Roger Penrose, Chapter 14 "Consciousness in the Universe: An Updated Review of the "Orch OR" Theory, in Biophysics of Consciousness: A Foundational Approach, eds. Roman R. Poznanski, Jack A. Tuszynski, Todd E. Feinberg, World Scientific, 2016. 
Hameroff, S. (2016). “Change the Music: Psychotherapy and Brain Vibrations.” The Neuropsychotherapist, Vol 4(4). 31-35.  pdf  
Craddock, Travis J.A., Stuart R. Hameroff, Ahmed T. Ayoub, Mariusz Klobukowski, & Jack A. Tuszynski. (2015). “Anesthetics act in quantum channels in brain microtubules to prevent consciousness.” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 15:6, 523-533.
Hameroff Stuart - Commentary on Stuart Kauffman's   Quantum Criticality at the Origins of Life in John Hewitt's Quantum Criticality in life's proteins (update),   Phys.org - April 15, 2015.
'Darwin Versus Deepak': Which Came First, Feelings, or the Brain? 
June 2, 2015
The Guardian, Why Can't The World's Greatest Minds Solve
the Mystery of Consciousness? Oliver Burkeman, Jan 21, 2015
The Guardian's Audio Long Read 30:37
Newswise - Anesthesia Points to Deeper Level ‘Quantum Channels’  March 23, 2015 
Japan Wired Magazine - 2014 Death in A Quantum Space.pdf - interview with Stuart Hameroff 
www.quantumconsciousness.org › files
DEATH IN A QUANTUM SPACE. ハメロフ博士の. 世界一ぶっとんだ死の話. 意識と「量子もつれ」と不滅の魂. 人がその生をまっとうし、肉体が生命活動を終え ...
Craddock, Travis John Adrian, Douglas Friesen, Jonathan Mane, Stuart Hameroff, & Jack A. Tuszynski. (2014). “The Feasibility of Coherent Energy Transfer in Microtubules.” Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 11(100).
Hameroff, SR., Craddock TJ, & Tuszynski JA. Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness. (2014). J Integr Neurosci. 13 June (2):229-52.
Hameroff S., (2014). Comment.  L Turin et al, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., “Electron spin change during general anesthesia.”  Aug. 11.  
Response Hameroff to L. Turin et al., 12 August, (2014). pdf.    Ref: Hadlington, Simon. “Knock-out theory puts new spin on general anaesthesia.” ChemistryWorld Review, 12 August, (2014) Ref: citation in Luca Turin et al. (2014). “Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophilia. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.,10.1073/ pnas. 1404387111. 26 April, (2014). Ref:  Hameroff, SR. (2006). “The entwined mysteries of anesthesia and consciousness: Is there a common underlying mechanism?” Anesthesiology 105(2):400–412.
Hameroff, S., & Roger Penrose (2014). Consciousness in the universe: A review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory.” (2014). Physics of Life Reviews, March 11(1):39-78. pdf. – PhysOrg. Discovery of quantum vibrations in ‘microtubules’ corroborates theory of consciousness. 16 January.
Hameroff, S., & Penrose R. (2014). Reply to Seven Commentaries on “Consciousness in the Universe: Review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory”. (2014). Physics of Life Reviews, 11:94–100.
Hameroff, S., & Penrose R. (2014). Reply to Criticism of the ‘Orch OR qubit’ – Orchestrated objective reduction is scientifically justified.” Physics of Life Reviews, 11(1):104-112.
Hameroff, Stuart. (2014). Consciousness, Microtubules and “Orch-OR”: A ‘Space-time’ Odyssey, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Imprint Academic. Volume 21, 3-4, 2014, 126-153. 
Hameroff, S. (2014). Quantum walks in brain microtubules-a biomolecular basis for quantum cognition? Top Cogn Sci, January; 6(1):91-7.
Discovery of quantum vibrations in ‘microtubules’ corroborates theory of consciousness,  Phys Org, 16 January, 2014.
Hameroff SR, Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA, Quantum effects in the understanding of consciousness, J Integr Neurosci. 2014 Apr 13(2):229-52
Hameroff, SR.  (2013). Quantum mathematical cognition requires quantum brain biology: the “Orch OR” theory.  Behav Brain Sci, June; 36(3):287-90.
Hameroff, S.  (2013). Comment on: A Tale of Two Fields: “Dissipation of ‘dark energy’ by cortex in knowledge retrieval” by Capolupo, Freeman and Vitiello. Phys Life Rev. March; 10(1):95-6; discussion 112-6.
Hameroff S, Trakas M, Duffield C, Annabi E, Gerace MB, Boyle P, Lucas A, Amos Q, Buadu A, Badal JJ, Transcranial ultrasound (TUS) effects on mental states: a pilot study, Brain Stimul, 2013; May;6(3):409-15.
Hameroff, S., How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will. Front Integr Neurosci, 2012; 6:93, Oct 12
Craddock T, St George M, Freedman H, Barakat K, Damaraju S, Hameroff S, Tuszynski J., Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia, PLOS One, 2012; June 25
Craddock TJ, St. George Marc, Freedman Holly, Barakat Khaled, Damaraju Sambasivarao, Hameroff Stuart, Tuszynski Jack A., Computational Predictions of Volatile Anesthetic Interactions with the Microtubule Cytoskeleton: Implications for Side Effects of General Anesthesia,PLoS One, 2012; June 25.
Hameroff S., Quantum brain biology complements neuronal assembly approaches to consciousness: Comment on "Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses" by Baars and Edelman. Phys Life Rev. 2012 Sep;9(3):303-5; discussion 306-7.
Craddock T, Tuszynski J, Hameroff S., Cytoskeletal Signaling: Is Memory Encoded in Microtubule Lattices by CaMKII Phosphorylation?  PLoS Computational Biology, 2012; March 8
Craddock TJ, Tuszynski JA, Chopra D, Casey N, Goldstein LE, Hameroff SR, Tanzi RE, The Zinc Dyshomeostasis Hypothesis of Alzheimer's Disease, PLoS One, 2012; March 23 7(3).

October 6, 2020
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics 2020 with one half to Roger Penrose for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity and the other half jointly to Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy.  Roger Penrose's affiliation at the time of the Nobel award: University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom -  The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Physics, 2020 - Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2020  View | Download 2.64 MB
https://www.kva.se/en/pressrum - press release    APS-American Physical Society - press release
R. Penrose, "Asymptotic Properties of Fields and Space-Times," Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 66 (1963).
R. Penrose, "Gravitational Collapse and Space-Time Singularities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 57 (1965).